## Exercise 2.1

**1. Solve:**

**(i) 2 – (3/5)**

**Solution:-**

For subtraction of two unlike fractions, first change them to the like fractions.

LCM of 1, 5 = 5

Now, let us change each of the given fraction into an equivalent fraction having 5 as the denominator.

= [(2/1) × (5/5)] = (10/5)

= [(3/5) × (1/1)] = (3/5)

Now,

= (10/5) – (3/5)

= [(10 – 3)/5]

= (7/5)

**(ii) 4 + (7/8)**

**Solution:-**

For addition of two unlike fractions, first change them to the like fractions.

LCM of 1, 8 = 8

Now, let us change each of the given fraction into an equivalent fraction having 8 as the denominator.

= [(4/1) × (8/8)] = (32/8)

= [(7/8) × (1/1)] = (7/8)

Now,

= (32/8) + (7/8)

= [(32 + 7)/8]

= (39/8)

=

**(iii) (3/5) + (2/7)**

**Solution:-**

For addition of two unlike fractions, first change them to the like fractions.

LCM of 5, 7 = 35

Now, let us change each of the given fraction into an equivalent fraction having 35 as the denominator.

= [(3/5) × (7/7)] = (21/35)

= [(2/7) × (5/5)] = (10/35)

Now,

= (21/35) + (10/35)

= [(21 + 10)/35]

= (31/35)

**(iv) (9/11) – (4/15)**

**Solution:-**

For subtraction of two unlike fractions, first change them to the like fractions.

LCM of 11, 15 = 165

Now, let us change each of the given fraction into an equivalent fraction having 165 as the denominator.

= [(9/11) × (15/15)] = (135/165)

= [(4/15) × (11/11)] = (44/165)

Now,

= (135/165) – (44/165)

= [(135 – 44)/165]

= (91/165)

**(v) (7/10) + (2/5) + (3/2)**

**Solution:-**

For addition of two unlike fractions, first change them to the like fractions.

LCM of 10, 5, 2 = 10

Now, let us change each of the given fraction into an equivalent fraction having 35 as the denominator.

= [(7/10) × (1/1)] = (7/10)

= [(2/5) × (2/2)] = (4/10)

= [(3/2) × (5/5)] = (15/10)

Now,

= (7/10) + (4/10) + (15/10)

= [(7 + 4 + 15)/10]

= (26/10)

= (13/5)

=

**(vi) **

**Solution:-**

First convert mixed fraction into improper fraction,

== 8/3

= 3 ½ = 7/2

For addition of two unlike fractions, first change them to the like fractions.

LCM of 3, 2 = 6

Now, let us change each of the given fraction into an equivalent fraction having 6 as the denominator.

= [(8/3) × (2/2)] = (16/6)

= [(7/2) × (3/3)] = (21/6)

Now,

= (16/6) + (21/6)

= [(16 + 21)/6]

= (37/6)

=

**(vii) - **

**Solution:-**

First convert mixed fraction into improper fraction,

= 8 ½ = 17/2

== 29/8

For Subtraction of two unlike fractions, first change them to the like fractions.

LCM of 2, 8 = 8

Now, let us change each of the given fraction into an equivalent fraction having 35 as the denominator.

= [(17/2) × (4/4)] = (68/8)

= [(29/8) × (1/1)] = (29/8)

Now,

= (68/8) – (29/8)

= [(68 – 29)/8]

= (39/8)

=

**2. Arrange the following in descending order:**

**(i) 2/9, 2/3, 8/21**

**Solution:-**

LCM of 9, 3, 21 = 63

Now, let us change each of the given fraction into an equivalent fraction having 63 as the denominator.

[(2/9) × (7/7)] = (14/63)[(2/3) × (21/21)] = (42/63)[(8/21) × (3/3)] = (24/63)

Clearly,

(42/63) > (24/63) > (14/63)

Hence,

(2/3) > (8/21) > (2/9)

Hence, the given fractions in descending order are (2/3), (8/21), (2/9)

**(ii) 1/5, 3/7, 7/10**

**Solution:-**

LCM of 5, 7, 10 = 70

Now, let us change each of the given fraction into an equivalent fraction having 70 as the denominator.

[(1/5) × (14/14)] = (14/70)[(3/7) × (10/10)] = (30/70)[(7/10) × (7/7)] = (49/70)

Clearly,

(49/70) > (30/70) > (14/70)

Hence,

(7/10) > (3/7) > (1/5)

Hence, the given fractions in descending order are (7/10), (3/7), (1/5)

**3. In a “magic square”, the sum of the numbers in each row, in each column and along the diagonals is the same. Is this a magic square?**

4/11 | 9/11 | 2/11 |

3/11 | 5/11 | 7/11 |

8/11 | 1/11 | 6/11 |

**Solution:-**

**4. A rectangular sheet of paper is 12 ½ cm long and 10 2/3 cm wide. Find its perimeter.**

**Solution:-**

From the question, it is given that,

Length = 12 ½ cm = 25/2 cm

Breadth =

10 2/3 cm = 32/3 cm

We know that,

Perimeter of the rectangle = 2 × (length + breadth)

= 2 × [(25/2) + (32/3)]

= 2 × {[(25 × 3) + (32 × 2)]/6}

= 2 × [(75 + 64)/6]

= 2 × [139/6]

= 139/3 cm

Hence, the perimeter of the sheet of paper is

46 1/3cm

**5. Find the perimeters of (i) Triangle ABE (ii) the rectangle BCDE in this figure. Whose perimeter is greater?**

**7. Ritu ate (3/5) part of an apple and the remaining apple was eaten by her brother Somu. How much part of the apple did Somu eat? Who had the larger share? By how much?**

**Solution:-**

From the question, it is given that,

Part of apple eaten by Ritu is = (3/5)

Part of apple eaten by Somu is = 1 – Part of apple eaten by Ritu

= 1 – (3/5)

The LCM of 1, 5 = 5

Now, let us change each of the given fraction into an equivalent fraction having 10 as the denominator.

= [(1/1) × (5/5)] – [(3/5) × (1/1)]

= (5/5) – (3/5)

= (5 – 3)/5

= 2/5

∴ Part of apple eaten by Somu is (2/5)

So, (3/5) > (2/5) hence, Ritu ate larger size of apple.

Now, the difference between the 32 shares = (3/5) – (2/5)

= (3 – 2)/5

= 1/5

Thus, Ritu’s share is larger than share of Somu by (1/5)

**8. Michael finished colouring a picture in (7/12) hour. Vaibhav finished colouring the same picture in (3/4) hour. Who worked longer? By what fraction was it longer?**

**Solution:-**

From the question, it is given that,

Time taken by the Michael to colour the picture is = (7/12)

Time taken by the Vaibhav to colour the picture is = (3/4)

The LCM of 12, 4 = 12

Now, let us change each of the given fraction into an equivalent fraction having 12 as the denominator.

(7/12) = (7/12) × (1/1) = 7/12

(3/4) = (3/4) × (3/3) = 9/12

Clearly, (7/12) < (9/12)

Hence, (7/12) < (3/4)

Thus, Vaibhav worked for longer time.

So, Vaibhav worked longer time by = (3/4) – (7/12)

= (9/12) – (7/12)

= (9 – 7)/12

= (2/12)

= (1/6) of an hour.

## Exercise 2.2

**1. Which of the drawings (a) to (d) show:**

**(i) 2 × (1/5) (ii) 2 × ½ (iii) 3 × (2/3) (iv) 3 × ¼**

**Solution:-**

(i) 2 × (1/5) represents the addition of 2 figures, each represents 1 shaded part out of the given 5 equal parts.

∴ 2 × (1/5) is represented by fig (d).

(ii) 2 × ½ represents the addition of 2 figures, each represents 1 shaded part out of the given 2 equal parts.

∴ 2 × ½ is represented by fig (b).

(iii) 3 × (2/3) represents the addition of 3 figures, each represents 2 shaded part out of the given 3 equal parts.

∴ 3 × (2/3) is represented by fig (a).

(iii) 3 × ¼ represents the addition of 3 figures, each represents 1 shaded part out of the given 4 equal parts.

∴ 3 × ¼ is represented by fig (c).

**2. Some pictures (a) to (c) are given below. Tell which of them show:**

**(i) 3 × (1/5) = (3/5) (ii) 2 × (1/3) = (2/3) (iii) 3 × (3/4) = 2 ¼**

**Solution:-**

(i) 3 × (1/5) represents the addition of 3 figures, each represents 1 shaded part out of the given 5 equal parts and (3/5) represents 3 shaded parts out of 5 equal parts.

∴ 3 × (1/5) = (3/5) is represented by fig (c).

(ii) 2 × (1/3) represents the addition of 2 figures, each represents 1 shaded part out of the given 3 equal parts and (2/3) represents 2 shaded parts out of 3 equal parts.

∴ 2 × (1/3) = (2/3) is represented by fig (a).

(iii) 3 × (3/4) represents the addition of 3 figures, each represents 3 shaded part out of the given 4 equal parts and 2 ¼ represents 2 fully and 1 figure having 1 part as shaded out of 4 equal parts.

∴ 3 × (3/4) = 2 ¼ is represented by fig (b).

**3. Multiply and reduce to lowest form and convert into a mixed fraction:**

**(i) 7 × (3/5)**

**Solution:-**

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (7/1) × (3/5)

= (7 × 3)/ (1 × 5)

= (21/5)

=

**(ii) 4 × (1/3)**

**Solution:-**

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (4/1) × (1/3)

= (4 × 1)/ (1 × 3)

= (4/3)

=1 1/2

**iii) 2 × (6/7)**

**Solution:-**

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (2/1) × (6/7)

= (2 × 6)/ (1 × 7)

= (12/7)

=1 5/7

**(iv) 5 × (2/9)**

**Solution:-**

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (5/1) × (2/9)

= (5 × 2)/ (1 × 9)

= (10/9)

=1 1/9

**(v) (2/3) × 4**

**Solution:-**

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (2/3) × (4/1)

= (2 × 4)/ (3 × 1)

= (8/3)

=2 2/3

**(vi) (5/2) × 6**

**Solution:-**

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (5/2) × (6/1)

= (5 × 6)/ (2 × 1)

= (30/2)

= 15

**(vii) 11 × (4/7)**

**Solution:-**

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (11/1) × (4/7)

= (11 × 4)/ (1 × 7)

= (44/7)

=6 2/7

**(viii) 20 × (4/5)**

**Solution:-**

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (20/1) × (4/5)

= (20 × 4)/ (1 × 5)

= (80/5)

= 16

**(ix) 13 × (1/3)**

**Solution:-**

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (13/1) × (1/3)

= (13 × 1)/ (1 × 3)

= (13/3)

=4 1/2

**(x) 15 × (3/5)**

**Solution:-**

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (15/1) × (3/5)

= (15 × 3)/ (1 × 5)

= (45/5)

= 9

**4. **Shade:

(i) of the circles in box (a)

(ii) of the circles in box (b)

(iii) of the circles in box (c)

**5. Find:**

**6. Multiply and express as a mixed fraction:**

**(a) 3 × 5 1/5**

**Solution:-**

First convert the given mixed fraction into improper fraction.

== 26/5

Now,

= 3 × (26/5)

= 78/5

=15 3/5

**(b) 5 × 6 ¾**

**Solution:-**

First convert the given mixed fraction into improper fraction.

= 6 ¾ = 27/4

Now,

= 5 × (27/4)

= 135/4

= 33 ¾

**(c) 7 × 2 ¼**

**Solution:-**

First convert the given mixed fraction into improper fraction.

= 2 ¼ = 9/4

Now,

= 7 × (9/4)

= 63/4

= 15 ¾

**(d) 4 × **

**Solution:-**

First convert the given mixed fraction into improper fraction.

== 19/3

Now,

= 4 × (19/3)

= 76/3

=

**(e) 3 ¼ × 6**

**Solution:-**

First convert the given mixed fraction into improper fraction.

= 3 ¼ = 13/4

Now,

= (13/4) × 6

= (13/2) × 3

= 39/2

= 19 ½

**(f) × 8**

**Solution:-**

First convert the given mixed fraction into improper fraction.

== 17/5

Now,

= (17/5) × 8

= 136/5

=

**7. Find:**

**(a) ½ of (i) 2 ¾ (ii) **

**Solution:-**

(i) 2 ¾

First convert the given mixed fraction into improper fraction.

= 2 ¾ = 11/4

Now,

= ½ × 11/4

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= ½ × (11/4)

= (1 × 11)/ (2 × 4)

= (11/8)

=

(ii)

First convert the given mixed fraction into improper fraction.

== 38/9

Now,

= ½ × (38/9)

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= ½ × (38/9)

= (1 × 38)/ (2 × 9)

= (38/18)

= 19/9

=

**(b) 5/8 of (i) (ii) **

**Solution:-**

(i)

First convert the given mixed fraction into improper fraction.

== 23/6

Now,

= (5/8) × (23/6)

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (5/8) × (23/6)

= (5 × 23)/ (8 × 6)

= (115/48)

=

(ii)

First convert the given mixed fraction into improper fraction.

== 29/3

Now,

= (5/8) × (29/3)

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (5/8) × (29/3)

= (5 × 29)/ (8 × 3)

= (145/24)

=

**8. Vidya and Pratap went for a picnic. Their mother gave them a water bottle that contained 5 liters water. Vidya consumed 2/5 of the water. Pratap consumed the remaining water.**

**(i) How much water did Vidya drink?**

**(ii) What fraction of the total quantity of water did Pratap drink?**

**Solution:-**

(i) From the question, it is given that,

Amount of water in the water bottle = 5 liters

Amount of water consumed by Vidya = 2/5 of 5 liters

= (2/5) × 5

= 2 liters

So, the total amount of water drank by Vidya is 2 liters

(ii) From the question, it is given that,

Amount of water in the water bottle = 5 liters

Then,

Amount of water consumed by Pratap = (1 – water consumed by Vidya)

= (1 – (2/5))

= (5-2)/5

= 3/5

∴ Total amount of water consumed by Pratap = 3/5 of 5 liters

= (3/5) × 5

= 3 liters

So, the total amount of water drank by Pratap is 3 liters

## Exercise 2.3

Question 1.

Find:

Solution:

Question 2.

Multiply and reduce to lowest form (if possible):

Solution:

Question 3.

Multiply the following fractions:

Solution:

Question 4.

Which is greater:

**(i) (2/7) of (3/4) or (3/5) of (5/8)**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (2/7) × (3/4) and (3/5) × (5/8)

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (2/7) × (3/4)

= (2 × 3)/ (7 × 4)

= (1 × 3)/ (7 × 2)

= (3/14) … [i]

And,

= (3/5) × (5/8)

= (3 × 5)/ (5 × 8)

= (3 × 1)/ (1 × 8)

= (3/8) … [ii]

Now, convert [i] and [ii] into like fractions,

LCM of 14 and 8 is 56

Now, let us change each of the given fraction into an equivalent fraction having 56 as the denominator.

[(3/14) × (4/4)] = (12/56)[(3/8) × (7/7)] = (21/56)

Clearly,

(12/56) < (21/56)

Hence,

(3/14) < (3/8)

**(ii) (1/2) of (6/7) or (2/3) of (3/7)**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (1/2) × (6/7) and (2/3) × (3/7)

By the rule Multiplication of fraction,

Product of fraction = (product of numerator)/ (product of denominator)

Then,

= (1/2) × (6/7)

= (1 × 6)/ (2 × 7)

= (1 × 3)/ (1 × 7)

= (3/7) … [i]

And,

= (2/3) × (3/7)

= (2 × 3)/ (3 × 7)

= (2 × 1)/ (1 × 7)

= (2/7) … [ii]

By comparing [i] and [ii],

Clearly,

(3/7) > (2/7)

**Question 5. **

**Saili plants 4 saplings, in a row, in her garden. The distance between two adjacent saplings is ¾ m. Find the distance between the first and the last sapling.**

**Solution:-**

From the question, it is given that,

The distance between two adjacent saplings = ¾ m

Number of saplings planted by Saili in a row = 4

Then, number of gap in saplings = ¾ × 4

= 3

∴The distance between the first and the last saplings = 3 × ¾

= (9/4) m

= 2 ¼ m

Hence, the distance between the first and the last saplings is 2 ¼ m.

**Question 6.**

**Lipika reads a book for 1 ¾ hours every day. She reads the entire book in 6 days. How many hours in all were required by her to read the book?**

**Solution:-**

From the question, it is given that,

Lipika reads the book for = 1 ¾ hours every day = 7/4 hours

Number of days she took to read the entire book = 6 days

∴Total number of hours required by her to complete the book = (7/4) × 6

= (7/2) × 3

= 21/2

= 10 ½ hours

Hence, the total number of hours required by her to complete the book is 10 ½ hours.

**Question 7. **

**A car runs 16 km using 1 litre of petrol. How much distance will it cover using 2 ¾ litres of petrol.**

**Solution:-**

From the question, it is given that,

The total number of distance travelled by a car in 1 liter of petrol = 16 km

Then,

Total quantity of petrol = 2 ¾ liter = 11/4 liters

Total number of distance travelled by car in 11/4 liters of petrol = (11/4) × 16

= 11 × 4

= 44 km

∴Total number of distance travelled by car in 11/4 liters of petrol is 44 km.

**Question 8.**

** (a) (i) provide the number in the box [ ], such that (2/3) × [ ] = (10/30)**

**Solution:-**

Let the required number be x,

Then,

= (2/3) × (x) = (10/30)

By cross multiplication,

= x = (10/30) × (3/2)

= x = (10 × 3) / (30 × 2)

= x = (5 × 1) / (10 × 1)

= x = 5/10

∴The required number in the box is (5/20)

**(ii) The simplest form of the number obtained in [ ] is**

**Solution:-**

The number in the box is 5/10

Then,

The simplest form of 5/10 is ½

**(b) (i) provide the number in the box [ ], such that (3/5) × [ ] = (24/75)**

**Solution:-**

Let the required number be x,

Then,

= (3/5) × (x) = (24/75)

By cross multiplication,

= x = (24/75) × (5/3)

= x = (24 × 5) / (75 × 3)

= x = (8 × 1) / (15 × 1)

= x = 8/15

∴The required number in the box is (8/15)

**(ii) The simplest form of the number obtained in [ ] is**

**Solution:-**

The number in the box is 8/15

Then,

The simplest form of 8/15 is 8/15

**Exercise 2.4**

**1. Find:**

**(i) 12 ÷ 3/4**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= 12 × reciprocal of ¾

= 12 × (4/3)

= 4 × 4

= 16

**(ii) 14 ÷ (5/6)**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= 14 × reciprocal of (5/6)

= 14 × (6/5)

= 84/5

**(iii) 8 ÷ (7/3)**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= 8 × reciprocal of (7/3)

= 8 × (3/7)

= (24/7)

**(iv) 4 ÷ (8/3)**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= 4 × reciprocal of (8/3)

= 4 × (3/8)

= 1 × (3/2)

= 3/2

**(v) 3 ÷ **

**Solution:-**

While dividing a whole number by a mixed fraction, first convert the mixed fraction into improper fraction

We have,

== 7/3

Then,

= 3 ÷ (7/3)

= 3 × reciprocal of (7/3)

= 3 × (3/7)

= 9/7

**(vi) 5 ÷ **

**Solution:-**

While dividing a whole number by a mixed fraction, first convert the mixed fraction into improper fraction

We have,

== 25/7

Then,

= 5 ÷ (25/7)

= 5 × reciprocal of (25/7)

= 5 × (7/25)

= 1 × (7/5)

= 7/5

**2. Find the reciprocal of each of the following fractions. Classify the reciprocals as proper fractions, improper fractions and whole numbers.**

**Solution:-**

(i) Reciprocal of , which is improper fraction.

(ii) Reciprocal of , which is improper fraction.

(iii) Reciprocal of , which is proper fraction.

(iv) Reciprocal of , which is proper fraction.

(vi) Reciprocal of , which is proper fraction.

(vi) Reciprocal of , which is whole number.

(vii) Reciprocal of , which is whole number.

**3. Find:**

**(i) (7/3) ÷ 2**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (7/3) × reciprocal of 2

= (7/3) × (1/2)

= (7 × 1) / (3 × 2)

= 7/6

=

**(ii) (4/9) ÷ 5**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (4/9) × reciprocal of 5

= (4/9) × (1/5)

= (4 × 1) / (9 × 5)

= 4/45

**(iii) (6/13) ÷ 7**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (6/13) × reciprocal of 7

= (6/13) × (1/7)

= (6 × 1) / (13 × 7)

= 6/91

**(iv) ÷ 3**

**Solution:-**

First covert the mixed fraction into improper fraction.

We have,

== 13/3

Then,

= (13/3) × reciprocal of 3

= (13/3) × (1/3)

= (13 × 1) / (3 × 3)

= 13/9

**(v) 3 ½ ÷ 4**

**Solution:-**

First covert the mixed fraction into improper fraction.

We have,

= 3 ½ = 7/2

Then,

= (7/2) × reciprocal of 4

= (7/2) × (1/4)

= (7 × 1) / (2 × 4)

= 7/8

**(vi) ÷ 7**

**Solution:-**

First covert the mixed fraction into improper fraction.

We have,

== 31/7

Then,

= (31/7) × reciprocal of 7

= (31/7) × (1/7)

= (31 × 1) / (7 × 7)

= 31/49

**4. Find:**

**(i) (2/5) ÷ (½)**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (2/5) × reciprocal of ½

= (2/5) × (2/1)

= (2 × 2) / (5 × 1)

= 4/5

**(ii) (4/9) ÷ (2/3)**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (4/9) × reciprocal of (2/3)

= (4/9) × (3/2)

= (4 × 3) / (9 × 2)

= (2 × 1) / (3 × 1)

= 2/3

**(iii) (3/7) ÷ (8/7)**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (3/7) × reciprocal of (8/7)

= (3/7) × (7/8)

= (3 × 7) / (7 × 8)

= (3 × 1) / (1 × 8)

= 3/8

**(iv) ÷ (3/5)**

**Solution:-**

First covert the mixed fraction into improper fraction.

We have,

== 7/3

Then,

= (7/3) × reciprocal of (3/5)

= (7/3) × (5/3)

= (7 × 5) / (3 × 3)

= 35/9

**(v) 3 ½ ÷ (8/3)**

**Solution:-**

First covert the mixed fraction into improper fraction.

We have,

= 3 ½ = 7/2

Then,

= (7/2) × reciprocal of (8/3)

= (7/2) × (3/8)

= (7 × 3) / (2 × 8)

= 21/16

**(vi) (2/5) ÷ 1 ½**

**Solution:-**

First covert the mixed fraction into improper fraction.

We have,

= 1 ½ = 3/2

Then,

= (2/5) × reciprocal of (3/2)

= (2/5) × (2/3)

= (2 × 2) / (5 × 3)

= 4/15

**(vii) ÷ **

**Solution:-**

First covert the mixed fraction into improper fraction.

We have,

== 16/5

== 5/3

Then,

= (16/5) × reciprocal of (5/3)

= (16/5) × (3/5)

= (16 × 3) / (5 × 5)

= 48/25

**(viii) ÷ **

**Solution:-**

First covert the mixed fraction into improper fraction.

We have,

== 11/5

== 6/5

Then,

= (11/5) × reciprocal of (6/5)

= (11/5) × (5/6)

= (11 × 5) / (5 × 6)

= (11 × 1) / (1 × 6)

= 11/6

**Exercise 2.5**

**1. Which is greater?**

**(i) 0.5 or 0.05**

**Solution:-**

By comparing whole number, 0 = 0

By comparing the tenths place digit, 5 > 0

∴ 0.5 > 0.05

**(ii) 0.7 or 0.5**

**Solution:-**

By comparing whole number, 0 = 0

By comparing the tenths place digit, 7 > 5

∴ 0.7 > 0.5

**(iii) 7 or 0.7**

**Solution:-**

By comparing whole number, 7 > 0

∴ 7 > 0.7

**(iv) 1.37 or 1.49**

**Solution:-**

By comparing whole number, 1 = 1

By comparing the tenths place digit, 3 < 4

∴ 1.37 < 1.49

**(v) 2.03 or 2.30**

**Solution:-**

By comparing whole number, 2 = 2

By comparing the tenths place digit, 0 < 3

∴ 2.03 < 2.30

**(vi) 0.8 or 0.88**

**Solution:-**

By comparing whole number, 0 = 0

By comparing the tenths place digit, 8 = 8

By comparing the hundredths place digit, 0 < 8

∴ 0.8 < 0.88

**2. Express as rupees as decimals:**

**(i) 7 paise**

**Solution:-**

We know that,

= Rs. 1 = 100 paise

= 1 paise = Rs. (1/100)

∴ 7 paise = Rs. (7/100)

= Rs. 0.07

**(ii) 7 rupees 7 paise**

**Solution:-**

We know that,

= Rs. 1 = 100 paise

= 1 paise = Rs. (1/100)

∴ 7 rupees 7 paise = Rs. 7 + Rs. (7/100)

= Rs. 7 + Rs. 0.07

= Rs. 7.07

**(iii) 77 rupees 77 paise**

**Solution:-**

We know that,

= Rs. 1 = 100 paise

= 1 paise = Rs. (1/100)

∴ 77 rupees 77 paise = Rs. 77 + Rs. (77/100)

= Rs. 77 + Rs. 0.77

= Rs. 77.77

**(iv) 50 paise**

**Solution:-**

We know that,

= Rs. 1 = 100 paise

= 1 paise = Rs. (1/100)

∴ 50 paise = Rs. (50/100)

= Rs. 0.50

**(v) 235 paise**

**Solution:-**

We know that,

= Rs. 1 = 100 paise

= 1 paise = Rs. (1/100)

∴ 235 paise = Rs. (235/100)

= Rs. 2.35

3. **(i) Express 5 cm in meter and kilometer**

**Solution:-**

We know that,

= 1 meter = 100 cm

Then,

= 1 cm = (1/100) m

= 5 cm = (5/100)

= 0.05 m

Now,

= 1 km = 1000 m

Then,

= 1 m = (1/1000) km

= 0.05 m = (0.05/1000)

= 0. 00005 km

**(i) Express 35 mm in cm, m and km**

**Solution:-**

We know that,

= 1 cm = 10 mm

Then,

= 1 mm = (1/10) cm

= 35 mm = (35/10) cm

= 3.5 cm

And,

= 1 meter = 100 cm

Then,

= 1 cm = (1/100) m

= 3.5 cm = (3.5/100) m

= (35/1000) m

= 0.035 m

Now,

= 1 km = 1000 m

Then,

= 1 m = (1/1000) km

= 0.035 m = (0.035/1000)

= 0. 000035 km

**4. Express in kg:**

**(i) 200 g**

**Solution:-**

We know that,

= 1 kg = 1000 g

Then,

= 1 g = (1/1000) kg

= 200 g = (200/1000) kg

= (2/10)

= 0.2 kg

**(ii) 3470 g**

**Solution:-**

We know that,

= 1 kg = 1000 g

Then,

= 1 g = (1/1000) kg

= 3470 g = (3470/1000) kg

= (3470/100)

= 3.470 kg

**(ii) 4 kg 8 g**

**Solution:-**

We know that,

= 1 kg = 1000 g

Then,

= 1 g = (1/1000) kg

= 4 kg 8 g = 4 kg + (8/1000) kg

= 4 kg + 0.008

= 4.008 kg

**5. Write the following decimal numbers in the expanded form:**

**(i) 20.03**

**Solution:-**

We have,

20.03 = (2 × 10) + (0 × 1) + (0 × (1/10)) + (3 × (1/100))

**(ii) 2.03**

**Solution:-**

We have,

2.03 = (2 × 1) + (0 × (1/10)) + (3 × (1/100))

**(iii) 200.03**

**Solution:-**

We have,

200.03 = (2 × 100) + (0 × 10) + (0 × 1) + (0 × (1/10)) + (3 × (1/100))

**(iv) 2.034**

**Solution:-**

We have,

2.034 = (2 × 1) + (0 × (1/10)) + (3 × (1/100)) + (4 × (1/1000))

**6. Write the place value of 2 in the following decimal numbers:**

**(i) 2.56**

**Solution:-**

From the question, we observe that,

The place value of 2 in 2.56 is ones

**(ii) 21.37**

**Solution:-**

From the question, we observe that,

The place value of 2 in 21.37 is tens

**(iii) 10.25**

**Solution:-**

From the question, we observe that,

The place value of 2 in 10.25 is tenths.

**(iv) 9.42**

**Solution:-**

From the question, we observe that,

The place value of 2 in 9.42 is hundredth.

**(v) 63.352**

**Solution:-**

From the question, we observe that,

The place value of 2 in 63.352 is thousandth.

**7. Dinesh went from place A to place B and from there to place C. A is 7.5 km from B and B is 12.7 km from C. Ayub went from place A to place D and from there to place C. D is 9.3 km from A and C is 11.8 km from D. Who travelled more and by how much?**

**Solution:-**

From the question, it is given that,

Distance travelled by Dinesh = AB + BC

= 7.5 + 12.7

= 20.2 km

∴Dinesh travelled 20.2 km

Distance travelled by Ayub = AD + DC

= 9.3 + 11.8

= 21.1 km

∴Ayub travelled 21.1km

Clearly, Ayub travelled more distance by = (21.1 – 20.2)

= 0.9 km

∴Ayub travelled 0.9 km more than Dinesh.

**8. Shyama bought 5 kg 300 g apples and 3 kg 250 g mangoes. Sarala bought 4 kg 800 g oranges and 4 kg 150 g bananas. Who bought more fruits?**

**Solution:-**

From the question, it is given that,

Fruits bought by Shyama = 5 kg 300 g

= 5 kg + (300/1000) kg

= 5 kg + 0.3 kg

= 5.3 kg

Fruits bought by Sarala = 4 kg 800 g + 4 kg 150 g

= (4 + (800/1000)) + (4 + (150/1000))

= (4 + 0.8) kg + (4 + .150) kg

= 4.8 kg + 4.150kg

= 8.950 kg

So, Sarala bought more fruits.

**9. How much less is 28 km than 42.6 km?**

**Solution:-**

Now, we have to find the difference of 42.6 km and 28 km

42.6

-28.0

14.6

∴ 14.6 km less is 28 km than 42.6 km.

## Exercise 2.6

**Find:**

**(i) 0.2 × 6**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (2/10) × 6

= (12/10)

On dividing a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the left by one place.

Then,

= 1.2

**(ii) 8 × 4.6**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (8) × (46/10)

= (368/10)

On dividing a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the left by one place.

Then,

= 36.8

**(iii) 2.71 × 5**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (271/100) × 5

= (1355/100)

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

Then,

= 13.55

**(iv) 20.1 × 4**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (201/10) × 4

= (804/10)

On dividing a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the left by one place.

Then,

= 80.4

**(v) 0.05 × 7**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (5/100) × 7

= (35/100)

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

Then,

= 0.35

**(vi) 211.02 × 4**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (21102/100) × 4

= (84408/100)

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

Then,

= 844.08

**(vii) 2 × 0.86**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (2) × (86/100)

= (172/100)

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

Then,

= 1.72

**2. Find the area of rectangle whose length is 5.7cm and breadth is 3 cm.**

**Solution:-**

From the question, it is given that,

Length of the rectangle = 5.7 cm

Breadth of the rectangle = 3 cm

Then,

Area of the rectangle = length × Breadth

= 5.7 × 3

= 17.1 cm^{2}

**3. Find:**

**(i) 1.3 × 10**

**Solution:-**

On multiplying a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the right by one place.

We have,

= 1.3 × 10 = 13

**(ii) 36.8 × 10**

**Solution:-**

On multiplying a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the right by one place.

We have,

= 36.8 × 10 = 368

**(iii) 153.7 × 10**

**Solution:-**

On multiplying a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the right by one place.

We have,

= 153.7 × 10 = 1537

**(iv) 168.07 × 10**

**Solution:-**

On multiplying a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the right by one place.

We have,

= 168.07 × 10 = 1680.7

**(v) 31.1 × 100**

**Solution:-**

On multiplying a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the right by two places.

We have,

= 31.1 × 100 = 3110

**(vi) 156.1 × 100**

**Solution:-**

On multiplying a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the right by two places.

We have,

= 156.1 × 100 = 15610

**(vii) 3.62 × 100**

**Solution:-**

On multiplying a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the right by two places.

We have,

= 3.62 × 100 = 362

**(viii) 43.07 × 100**

**Solution:-**

On multiplying a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the right by two places.

We have,

= 43.07 × 100 = 4307

**(ix) 0.5 × 10**

**Solution:-**

On multiplying a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the right by one place.

We have,

= 0.5 × 10 = 5

**(x) 0.08 × 10**

**Solution:-**

On multiplying a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the right by one place.

We have,

= 0.08 × 10 = 0.8

**(xi) 0.9 × 100**

**Solution:-**

On multiplying a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the right by two places.

We have,

= 0.9 × 100 = 90

**(xii) 0.03 × 1000**

**Solution:-**

On multiplying a decimal by 1000, the decimal point is shifted to the right by three places.

We have,

= 0.03 × 1000 = 30

**4. A two-wheeler covers a distance of 55.3 km in one litre of petrol. How much distance will it cover in 10 litres of petrol?**

**Solution:-**

From the question, it is given that,

Distance covered by two-wheeler in 1L of petrol = 55.3 km

Then,

Distance covered by two wheeler in 10L of petrol = (10 × 55.3)

= 553 km

∴Two-wheeler covers a distance in 10L of petrol is 553 km.

**5. Find:**

**(i) 2.5 × 0.3**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (25/10) × (3/10)

= (75/100)

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

Then,

= 0.75

**(ii) 0.1 × 51.7**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (1/10) × (517/10)

= (517/100)

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

Then,

= 5.17

**(iii) 0.2 × 316.8**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (2/10) × (3168/10)

= (6336/100)

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

Then,

= 63.36

**(iv) 1.3 × 3.1**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (13/10) × (31/10)

= (403/100)

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

Then,

= 4.03

**(v) 0.5 × 0.05**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (5/10) × (5/100)

= (25/1000)

On dividing a decimal by 1000, the decimal point is shifted to the left by three places.

Then,

= 0.025

**(vi) 11.2 × 0.15**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (112/10) × (15/100)

= (1680/1000)

On dividing a decimal by 1000, the decimal point is shifted to the left by three places.

Then,

= 1.680

**(vii) 1.07 × 0.02**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (107/100) × (2/100)

= (214/10000)

On dividing a decimal by 10000, the decimal point is shifted to the left by four places.

Then,

= 0.0214

**(viii) 10.05 × 1.05**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (1005/100) × (105/100)

= (105525/10000)

On dividing a decimal by 10000, the decimal point is shifted to the left by four places.

Then,

= 10.5525

**(ix) 101.01 × 0.01**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (10101/100) × (1/100)

= (10101/10000)

On dividing a decimal by 10000, the decimal point is shifted to the left by four places.

Then,

= 1.0101

**(x) 100.01 × 1.1**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (10001/100) × (11/10)

= (110011/1000)

On dividing a decimal by 1000, the decimal point is shifted to the left by three places.

Then,

= 110.011

## Exercise 2.7

**1. Find:**

**(i) 0.4 ÷ 2**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (4/10) ÷ 2

Then,

= (4/10) × (1/2)

= (2/10) × (1/1)

= (2/10)

On dividing a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the left by one place.

Then,

= 0.2

**(ii) 0.35 ÷ 5**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (35/100) ÷ 5

Then,

= (35/100) × (1/5)

= (7/100) × (1/1)

= (7/100)

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

Then,

= 0.07

**(iii) 2.48 ÷ 4**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (248/100) ÷ 4

Then,

= (248/100) × (1/4)

= (62/100) × (1/1)

= (62/100)

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

Then,

= 0.62

**(iv) 65.4 ÷ 6**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (654/10) ÷ 6

Then,

= (654/10) × (1/6)

= (109/10) × (1/1)

= (109/10)

On dividing a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the left by one place.

Then,

= 10.9

**(v) 651.2 ÷ 4**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (6512/10) ÷ 4

Then,

= (6512/10) × (1/4)

= (1628/10) × (1/1)

= (1628/10)

On dividing a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the left by one place.

Then,

= 162.8

**(vi) 14.49 ÷ 7**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (1449/100) ÷ 7

Then,

= (1449/100) × (1/7)

= (207/100) × (1/1)

= (207/100)

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

Then,

= 2.07

**(vii) 3.96 ÷ 4**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (396/100) ÷ 4

Then,

= (396/100) × (1/4)

= (99/100) × (1/1)

= (99/100)

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

Then,

= 0.99

**(viii) 0.80 ÷ 5**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (80/100) ÷ 5

Then,

= (80/100) × (1/5)

= (16/100) × (1/1)

= (16/100)

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

Then,

= 0.16

**2. Find:**

**(i) 4.8 ÷ 10**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the left by one place.

We have,

= 4.8 ÷ 10

= (4.8/10)

= 0.48

**(ii) 52.5 ÷ 10**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the left by one place.

We have,

= 52.5 ÷ 10

= (52.5/10)

= 5.25

**(iii) 0.7 ÷ 10**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the left by one place.

We have,

= 0.7 ÷ 10

= (0.7/10)

= 0.07

**(iv) 33.1 ÷ 10**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the left by one place.

We have,

= 33.1 ÷ 10

= (33.1/10)

= 3.31

**(v) 272.23 ÷ 10**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the left by one place.

We have,

= 272.23 ÷ 10

= (272.23/10)

= 27.223

**(vi) 0.56 ÷ 10**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the left by one place.

We have,

= 0.56 ÷ 10

= (0.56/10)

= 0.056

**(vii) 3.97 ÷10**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 10, the decimal point is shifted to the left by one place.

We have,

= 3.97 ÷ 10

= (3.97/10)

= 0.397

**3. Find:**

**(i) 2.7 ÷ 100**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

We have,

= 2.7 ÷ 100

= (2.7/100)

= 0.027

**(ii) 0.3 ÷ 100**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

We have,

= 0.3 ÷ 100

= (0.3/100)

= 0.003

**(iii) 0.78 ÷ 100**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

We have,

= 0.78 ÷ 100

= (0.78/100)

= 0.0078

**(iv) 432.6 ÷ 100**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

We have,

= 432.6 ÷ 100

= (432.6/100)

= 4.326

**(v) 23.6 ÷100**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

We have,

= 23.6 ÷ 100

= (23.6/100)

= 0.236

**(vi) 98.53 ÷ 100**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 100, the decimal point is shifted to the left by two places.

We have,

= 98.53 ÷ 100

= (98.53/100)

= 0.9853

**4. Find:**

**(i) 7.9 ÷ 1000**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 1000, the decimal point is shifted to the left by three places.

We have,

= 7.9 ÷ 1000

= (7.9/1000)

= 0.0079

**(ii) 26.3 ÷ 1000**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 1000, the decimal point is shifted to the left by three places.

We have,

= 26.3 ÷ 1000

= (26.3/1000)

= 0.0263

**(iii) 38.53 ÷ 1000**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 1000, the decimal point is shifted to the left by three places.

We have,

= 38.53 ÷ 1000

= (38.53/1000)

= 0.03853

**(iv) 128.9 ÷ 1000**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 1000, the decimal point is shifted to the left by three places.

We have,

= 128.9 ÷ 1000

= (128.9/1000)

= 0.1289

**(v) 0.5 ÷ 1000**

**Solution:-**

On dividing a decimal by 1000, the decimal point is shifted to the left by three places.

We have,

= 0.5 ÷ 1000

= (0.5/1000)

= 0.0005

**5. Find:**

**(i) 7 ÷ 3.5**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= 7 ÷ (35/10)

= 7 × (10/35)

= 1 × (10/5)

= 2

**(ii) 36 ÷ 0.2**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= 36 ÷ (2/10)

= 36 × (10/2)

= 18 × 10

= 180

**(iii) 3.25 ÷ 0.5**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (325/100) ÷ (5/10)

= (325/100) × (10/5)

= (325 × 10)/ (100 × 5)

= (65 × 1)/ (10 × 1)

= 65/10

= 6.5

**(iv) 30.94 ÷ 0.7**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (3094/100) ÷ (7/10)

= (3094/100) × (10/7)

= (3094 × 10)/ (100 × 7)

= (442 × 1)/ (10 × 1)

= 442/10

= 44.2

**(v) 0.5 ÷ 0.25**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (5/10) ÷ (25/100)

= (5/10) × (100/25)

= (5 × 100)/ (10 × 25)

= (1 × 10)/ (1 × 5)

= 10/5

= 2

**(vi) 7.75 ÷ 0.25**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (775/100) ÷ (25/100)

= (775/100) × (100/25)

= (775 × 100)/ (100 × 25)

= (155 × 1)/ (1 × 5)

= (31 × 1)/ (1 × 1)

= 31

**(vii) 76.5 ÷ 0.15**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (765/10) ÷ (15/100)

= (765/10) × (100/15)

= (765 × 100)/ (10 × 15)

= (51 × 10)/ (1 × 1)

= 510

**(viii) 37.8 ÷ 1.4**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (378/10) ÷ (14/10)

= (378/10) × (10/14)

= (378 × 10)/ (10 × 14)

= (27 × 1)/ (1 × 1)

= 27

**(ix) 2.73 ÷ 1.3**

**Solution:-**

We have,

= (273/100) ÷ (13/10)

= (273/100) × (10/13)

= (273 × 10)/ (100 × 13)

= (21 × 1)/ (10 × 1)

= 21/10

= 2.1

**6. A vehicle covers a distance of 43.2 km in 2.4 litres of petrol. How much distance will it cover in one litre of petrol?**

**Solution:-**

From the question, it is given that,

Total distance covered by vehicle in 2.4 litres of petrol = 43.2 km

Then,

Distance covered in 1 litre of petrol = 43.2 ÷ 2.4

= (432/10) ÷ (24/10)

= (432/10) × (10/24)

= (432 × 10)/ (10 × 24)

= (36 × 1)/ (1 × 2)

= (18 × 1)/ (1 × 1)

= 18 km

∴Total distance covered in 1 liter of petrol is 18 km.