# NCERT Solutions Ch- 8 Quadrilaterals

## Ex 8.1

Question 1.
The angles of quadrilateral are in the ratio 3 : 5 : 9 : 13. Find all the angles of the quadrilateral.
Solution:
Let the angles of the quadrilateral be 3x, 5x, 9x and 13x.
∴ 3x + 5x + 9x + 13x = 360°
[Angle sum property of a quadrilateral]
⇒ 30x = 360°
⇒ x = $frac { { 360 }^{ circ } }{ 30 }$ = 12°
∴ 3x = 3 x 12° = 36°
5x = 5 x 12° = 60°
9x = 9 x 12° = 108°
13a = 13 x 12° = 156°
⇒ The required angles of the quadrilateral are 36°, 60°, 108° and 156°.

Question 2.
If the diagonals of a parallelogram are equal, then show that it is a rectangle.
Solution:
Let ABCD is a parallelogram such that AC = BD.

In ∆ABC and ∆DCB,
AC = DB [Given]
AB = DC [Opposite sides of a parallelogram]
BC = CB [Common]
∴ ∆ABC ≅ ∆DCB [By SSS congruency]
⇒ ∠ABC = ∠DCB [By C.P.C.T.] …(1)
Now, AB || DC and BC is a transversal. [ ∵ ABCD is a parallelogram]
∴ ∠ABC + ∠DCB = 180° … (2) [Co-interior angles]
From (1) and (2), we have
∠ABC = ∠DCB = 90°
i.e., ABCD is a parallelogram having an angle equal to 90°.
∴ ABCD is a rectangle.

Question 3.
Show that if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other at right angles, then it is a rhombus.
Solution:
Let ABCD be a quadrilateral such that the diagonals AC and BD bisect each other at right angles at O.

∴ In ∆AOB and ∆AOD, we have
AO = AO [Common]
OB = OD [O is the mid-point of BD]
∠AOB = ∠AOD [Each 90]
∴ ∆AQB ≅ ∆AOD [By,SAS congruency
∴ AB = AD [By C.P.C.T.] ……..(1)
Similarly, AB = BC .. .(2)
BC = CD …..(3)
CD = DA ……(4)
∴ From (1), (2), (3) and (4), we have
AB = BC = CD = DA
Thus, the quadrilateral ABCD is a rhombus.

Question 4.
Show that the diagonals of a square are equal and bisect each other at right angles.
Solution:
Let ABCD be a square such that its diagonals AC and BD intersect at O.

(i) To prove that the diagonals are equal, we need to prove AC = BD.
In ∆ABC and ∆BAD, we have
AB = BA [Common]
BC = AD [Sides of a square ABCD]
∠ABC = ∠BAD [Each angle is 90°]
∴ ∆ABC ≅ ∆BAD [By SAS congruency]
AC = BD [By C.P.C.T.] …(1)

(ii) AD || BC and AC is a transversal. [∵ A square is a parallelogram]
∴ ∠1 = ∠3
[Alternate interior angles are equal]
Similarly, ∠2 = ∠4
Now, in ∆OAD and ∆OCB, we have
AD = CB [Sides of a square ABCD]
∠1 = ∠3 [Proved]
∠2 = ∠4 [Proved]
∴ ∆OAD ≅ ∆OCB [By ASA congruency]
⇒ OA = OC and OD = OB [By C.P.C.T.]
i.e., the diagonals AC and BD bisect each other at O. …….(2)

(iii) In ∆OBA and ∆ODA, we have
OB = OD [Proved]
BA = DA [Sides of a square ABCD]
OA = OA [Common]
∴ ∆OBA ≅ ∆ODA [By SSS congruency]
⇒ ∠AOB = ∠AOD [By C.P.C.T.] …(3)
∵ ∠AOB and ∠AOD form a linear pair.
∴∠AOB + ∠AOD = 180°
∴∠AOB = ∠AOD = 90° [By(3)]
⇒ AC ⊥ BD …(4)
From (1), (2) and (4), we get AC and BD are equal and bisect each other at right angles.

Question 5.
Show that if the diagonals of a quadrilateral are equal and bisect each other at right angles, then it is a square.
Solution:
Let ABCD be a quadrilateral such that diagonals AC and BD are equal and bisect each other at right angles.

Now, in ∆AOD and ∆AOB, We have
∠AOD = ∠AOB [Each 90°]
AO = AO [Common]
OD = OB [ ∵ O is the midpoint of BD]
∴ ∆AOD ≅ ∆AOB [By SAS congruency]
⇒ AD = AB [By C.P.C.T.] …(1)
Similarly, we have
AB = BC … (2)
BC = CD …(3)
CD = DA …(4)
From (1), (2), (3) and (4), we have
AB = BC = CD = DA
∴ Quadrilateral ABCD have all sides equal.
In ∆AOD and ∆COB, we have
AO = CO [Given]
OD = OB [Given]
∠AOD = ∠COB [Vertically opposite angles]
So, ∆AOD ≅ ∆COB [By SAS congruency]
∴∠1 = ∠2 [By C.P.C.T.]
But, they form a pair of alternate interior angles.
∴ AD || BC
Similarly, AB || DC
∴ ABCD is a parallelogram.
∴ Parallelogram having all its sides equal is a rhombus.
∴ ABCD is a rhombus.
Now, in ∆ABC and ∆BAD, we have
AC = BD [Given]
BC = AD [Proved]
AB = BA [Common]
∴ ∆ABC ≅ ∆BAD [By SSS congruency]
∴ ∠ABC = ∠BAD [By C.P.C.T.] ……(5)
Since, AD || BC and AB is a transversal.
∴∠ABC + ∠BAD = 180° .. .(6) [ Co – interior angles]
⇒ ∠ABC = ∠BAD = 90° [By(5) & (6)]
So, rhombus ABCD is having one angle equal to 90°.
Thus, ABCD is a square.

Question 6.
Diagonal AC of a parallelogram ABCD bisects ∠A (see figure). Show that
(i) it bisects ∠C also,
(ii) ABCD is a rhombus.

Solution:

(i) In ΔADC and ΔCBA,

AD = CB (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

DC = BA (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

AC = CA (Common Side)

, ΔADC ≅ ΔCBA [SSS congruency]

Thus,

∠ACD = ∠CAB by CPCT

and ∠CAB = ∠CAD (Given)

⇒ ∠ACD = ∠BCA

Thus,

AC bisects ∠C also.

(ii) ∠ACD = ∠CAD (Proved above)

⇒ AD = CD (Opposite sides of equal angles of a triangle are equal)

Also, AB = BC = CD = DA (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

Thus,

ABCD is a rhombus.

Question 7.

ABCD is a rhombus. Show that diagonal AC bisects ∠A as well as ∠C and diagonal BD bisects ∠B as well as ∠D.

Solution:

Solution:
Since, ABCD is a rhombus.
⇒ AB = BC = CD = DA
Also, AB || CD and AD || BC

Now, CD = AD ⇒ ∠1 = ∠2 …….(1)
[ ∵ Angles opposite to equal sides of a triangle are equal]
Also, AD || BC and AC is the transversal.
[ ∵ Every rhombus is a parallelogram]
⇒ ∠1 = ∠3 …(2)
[ ∵ Alternate interior angles are equal]
From (1) and (2), we have
∠2 = ∠3 …(3)
Since, AB || DC and AC is transversal.
∴ ∠2 = ∠4 …(4)
[ ∵ Alternate interior angles are equal] From (1) and (4),
we have ∠1 = ∠4
∴ AC bisects ∠C as well as ∠A.
Similarly, we can prove that BD bisects ∠B as well as ∠D.

Question 8.
ABCD is a rectangle in which diagonal AC bisects ∠A as well as ∠C. Show that
(i) ABCD is a square
(ii) diagonal BD bisects ∠B as well as ∠D.
Solution:
We have a rectangle ABCD such that AC bisects ∠A as well as ∠C.
i.e., ∠1 = ∠4 and ∠2 = ∠3 ……..(1)

(i) Since, every rectangle is a parallelogram.
∴ ABCD is a parallelogram.
⇒ AB || CD and AC is a transversal.
∴∠2 = ∠4 …(2)
[ ∵ Alternate interior angles are equal]
From (1) and (2), we have
∠3 = ∠4
In ∆ABC, ∠3 = ∠4
⇒ AB = BC
[ ∵ Sides opposite to equal angles of a A are equal]
Similarly, CD = DA
So, ABCD is a rectangle having adjacent sides equal.
⇒ ABCD is a square.

(ii) Since, ABCD is a square and diagonals of a square bisect the opposite angles.
So, BD bisects ∠B as well as ∠D.

Question 9.

In parallelogram ABCD, two points P and Q are taken on diagonal BD such that DP = BQ (see Fig. 8.20). Show that:

(i) ΔAPD ≅ ΔCQB

(ii) AP = CQ

(iii) ΔAQB ≅ ΔCPD

(iv) AQ = CP

(v) APCQ is a parallelogram

Solution:

(i) In ΔAPD and ΔCQB,

DP = BQ (Given)

∠ADP = ∠CBQ (Alternate interior angles)

AD = BC (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

Thus, ΔAPD ≅ ΔCQB [SAS congruency]

(ii) AP = CQ by CPCT as ΔAPD ≅ ΔCQB.

(iii) In ΔAQB and ΔCPD,

BQ = DP (Given)

∠ABQ = ∠CDP (Alternate interior angles)

AB = CD (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

Thus, ΔAQB ≅ ΔCPD [SAS congruency]

(iv) As ΔAQB ≅ ΔCPD

AQ = CP [CPCT]

(v) From the questions (ii) and (iv), it is clear that APCQ has equal opposite sides and also has equal and opposite angles. , APCQ is a parallelogram.

Question 10.

ABCD is a parallelogram and AP and CQ are perpendiculars from vertices A and C on diagonal BD (see Fig. 8.21). Show that

(i) ΔAPB ≅ ΔCQD

(ii) AP = CQ

Solution:

(i) In ΔAPB and ΔCQD,

∠ABP = ∠CDQ (Alternate interior angles)

∠APB = ∠CQD (= 90o as AP and CQ are perpendiculars)

AB = CD (ABCD is a parallelogram)

, ΔAPB ≅ ΔCQD [AAS congruency]

(ii) As ΔAPB ≅ ΔCQD.

, AP = CQ [CPCT]

Question 11.

In ΔABC and ΔDEF, AB = DE, AB || DE, BC = EF and BC || EF. Vertices A, B and C are joined to vertices D, E and F respectively (see Fig. 8.22).

Show that

(i) quadrilateral ABED is a parallelogram

(ii) quadrilateral BEFC is a parallelogram

(iii) AD || CF and AD = CF

(iv) quadrilateral ACFD is a parallelogram

(v) AC = DF

(vi) ΔABC ≅ ΔDEF.

Solution:
(i) We have AB = DE [Given]
and AB || DE [Given]
i. e., ABED is a quadrilateral in which a pair of opposite sides (AB and DE) are parallel and of equal length.
∴ ABED is a parallelogram.

(ii) BC = EF [Given]
and BC || EF [Given]
i.e. BEFC is a quadrilateral in which a pair of opposite sides (BC and EF) are parallel and of equal length.
∴ BEFC is a parallelogram.

(iii) ABED is a parallelogram [Proved]
∴ AD || BE and AD = BE …(1)
[ ∵ Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal and parallel] Also, BEFC is a parallelogram. [Proved]
BE || CF and BE = CF …(2)
[ ∵ Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal and parallel]
From (1) and (2), we have
AD || CF and AD = CF

(iv) Since, AD || CF and AD = CF [Proved]
i.e., In quadrilateral ACFD, one pair of opposite sides (AD and CF) are parallel and of equal length.
∴Quadrilateral ACFD is a parallelogram.

(v) Since, ACFD is a parallelogram. [Proved]
So, AC =DF [∵ Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal]

(vi) In ∆ABC and ∆DFF, we have
AB = DE [Given]
BC = EF [Given]
AC = DE [Proved in (v) part]
∆ABC ≅ ∆DFF [By SSS congruency]

Question 12.
ABCD is a trapezium in which AB || CD and AD = BC (see figure). Show that
(i )∠A=∠B
(ii )∠C=∠D
(iii) ∆ABC ≅ ∆BAD
(iv) diagonal AC = diagonal BD

Solution:

To Construct: Draw a line through C parallel to DA intersecting AB produced at E.

(i) CE = AD (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

AD = BC (Given)

, BC = CE

⇒∠CBE = ∠CEB

also,

∠A+∠CBE = 180° (Angles on the same side of transversal and ∠CBE = ∠CEB)

∠B +∠CBE = 180° ( As Linear pair)

⇒∠A = ∠B

(ii) ∠A+∠D = ∠B+∠C = 180° (Angles on the same side of transversal)

⇒∠A+∠D = ∠A+∠C (∠A = ∠B)

⇒∠D = ∠C

(iii) In ΔABC and ΔBAD,

AB = AB (Common)

∠DBA = ∠CBA

AD = BC (Given)

, ΔABC ≅ ΔBAD [SAS congruency]

(iv) Diagonal AC = diagonal BD by CPCT as ΔABC ≅ ΔBA.

## Ex 8.2

Question 1.
ABCD is a quadrilateral in which P, Q, R and S are mid-points of the sides AB, BC, CD and DA (see figure). AC is a diagonal. Show that
(i) SR || AC and SR = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$ AC
(ii) PQ = SR
(iii) PQRS is a parallelogram.

Solution:
(i) In ∆ACD, We have
∴ S is the mid-point of AD and R is the mid-point of CD.
SR = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AC and SR || AC …(1)
[By mid-point theorem]

(ii) In ∆ABC, P is the mid-point of AB and Q is the mid-point of BC.
PQ = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AC and PQ || AC …(2)
[By mid-point theorem]
From (1) and (2), we get
PQ = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AC = SR and PQ || AC || SR
⇒ PQ = SR and PQ || SR
(iii) In a quadrilateral PQRS,
PQ = SR and PQ || SR [Proved]
∴ PQRS is a parallelogram.

Question 2.
ABCD is a rhombus and P, Q, R and S are the mid-points of the sides AB, BC, CD and DA, respectively. Show that the quadrilateral PQRS is a rectangle.
Solution:
We have a rhombus ABCD and P, Q, R and S are the mid-points of the sides AB, BC, CD and DA respectively. Join AC.

In ∆ABC, P and Q are the mid-points of AB and BC respectively.
∴ PQ = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AC and PQ || AC …(1)
[By mid-point theorem]
In ∆ADC, R and S are the mid-points of CD and DA respectively.
∴ SR = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AC and SR || AC …(2)
[By mid-point theorem]
From (1) and (2), we get
PQ = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AC = SR and PQ || AC || SR
⇒ PQ = SR and PQ || SR
∴ PQRS is a parallelogram. …….(3)
Now, in ∆ERC and ∆EQC,
∠1 = ∠2
[ ∵ The diagonals of a rhombus bisect the opposite angles]
CR = CQ [ ∵$frac { CD }{ 2 }$ = $frac { BC }{ 2 }$]
CE = CE [Common]
∴ ∆ERC ≅ ∆EQC [By SAS congruency]
⇒ ∠3 = ∠4 ...(4) [By C.P.C.T.]
But ∠3 + ∠4 = 180° ......(5) [Linear pair]
From (4) and (5), we get
⇒ ∠3 = ∠4 = 90°
Now, ∠RQP = 180° - ∠b [ Y Co-interior angles for PQ || AC and EQ is transversal]
But ∠5 = ∠3
[ ∵ Vertically opposite angles are equal]
∴ ∠5 = 90°
So, ∠RQP = 180° - ∠5 = 90°
∴ One angle of parallelogram PQRS is 90°.
Thus, PQRS is a rectangle.

Question 3.
ABCD is a rectangle and P, Q, R ans S are mid-points of the sides AB, BC, CD and DA, respectively. Show that the quadrilateral PQRS is a rhombus.
Solution:
We have,
Now, in ∆ABC, we have
PQ = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AC and PQ || AC ...(1)
[By mid-point theorem]
Similarly, in ∆ADC, we have
SR = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AC and SR || AC ...(2)
From (1) and (2), we get
PQ = SR and PQ || SR
∴ PQRS is a parallelogram.
Now, in ∆PAS and ∆PBQ, we have
∠A = ∠B [Each 90°]
AP = BP [ ∵ P is the mid-point of AB]
AS = BQ [∵ $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AD = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$BC]
∴ ∆PAS ≅ ∆PBQ [By SAS congruency]
⇒ PS = PQ [By C.P.C.T.]
Also, PS = QR and PQ = SR [∵opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal]
So, PQ = QR = RS = SP i.e., PQRS is a parallelogram having all of its sides equal.
Hence, PQRS is a rhombus.

Question 4.
ABCD is a trapezium in which AB || DC, BD is a diagonal and E is the mid-point of AD. A line is drawn through E parallel to AB intersecting BC at F (see figure). Show that F is the mid-point of BC.

Solution:
We have,

In ∆DAB, we know that E is the mid-point of
AD and EG || AB [∵ EF || AB]
Using the converse of mid-point theorem, we get, G is the mid-point of BD.
Again in ABDC, we have G is the midpoint of BD and GF || DC.
[∵ AB || DC and EF || AB and GF is a part of EF]
Using the converse of the mid-point theorem, we get, F is the mid-point of BC.

Question 5.
In a parallelogram ABCD, E and F are the mid-points of sides AB and CD respectively (see figure). Show that the line segments AF and EC trisect the diagonal BD.

Solution:
Since, the opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel and equal.
∴ AB || DC
⇒ AE || FC ...(1)
and AB = DC
⇒ $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AB = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$DC
⇒ AE = FC ...(2)
From (1) and (2), we have
AE || PC and AE = PC
∴ ∆ECF is a parallelogram.
Now, in ∆DQC, we have F is the mid-point of DC and FP || CQ
[∵ AF || CE]
⇒ DP = PQ ...(3)
[By converse of mid-point theorem] Similarly, in A BAP, E is the mid-point of AB and EQ || AP [∵AF || CE]
⇒ BQ = PQ ...(4)
[By converse of mid-point theorem]
∴ From (3) and (4), we have
DP = PQ = BQ
So, the line segments AF and EC trisect the diagonal BD.

Question 6.
Show that the line segments joining the mid-points of the opposite sides of a quadrilateral bisect each other.
Solution:
Let ABCD be a quadrilateral, where P, Q, R and S are the mid-points of the sides AB, BC, CD and DA respectively.
Join PQ, QR, RS and SP.
Let us also join PR, SQ and AC.

Now, in ∆ABC, we have P and Q are the mid-points of its sides AB and BC respectively.
∴ PQ || AC and PQ = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$ AC ...(1)
[By mid-point theorem]
Similarly, RS || AC and RS = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AC ...(2)
∴ By (1) and (2), we get
PQ || RS, PQ = RS
∴ PQRS is a parallelogram.
And the diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each other, i.e., PR and SQ bisect each other. Thus, the line segments joining the midpoints of opposite sides of a quadrilateral ABCD bisect each other.

Question 7.
ABC is a triangle right angled at C. A line through the mid-point M of hypotenuse AB and parallel to BC intersects AC at D. Show that
(i) D is the mid-point of AC
(ii) MD ⊥ AC
(iii) CM = MA = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AB
Solution:
we have

(i) In ∆ACB, We have
M is the mid-point of AB. [Given]
MD || BC , [Given]
∴ Using the converse of mid-point theorem,
D is the mid-point of AC.

(ii) Since, MD || BC and AC is a transversal.
∠MDA = ∠BCA
[ ∵ Corresponding angles are equal] As
∠BCA = 90° [Given]
∠MDA = 90°
⇒ MD ⊥AC.

(iii) In ∆ADM and ∆CDM, we have
∠ADM = ∠CDM [Each equal to 90°]
MD = MD [Common]
AD = CD [∵ D is the mid-point of AC]
∴ ∆ADM ≅ ∆CDM [By SAS congruency]
⇒ MA = MC [By C.P.C.T.] .. .(1)
∵ M is the mid-point of AB [Given]
MA = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AB ...(2)
From (1) and (2), we have
CM = MA = $frac { 1 }{ 2 }$AB