# NCERT Solutions class 10 Chapter 13 Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

### NCERT Solutions Magnetic Effects of Electric Current

Page Number: 224

Question 1
Why does a compass needle get deflected when brought near a bar magnet ?
The magnetic field of the magnet exerts force on both the poles of the compass needle. The forces experienced by the two poles are equal and opposite. These two forces form a couple which deflects the compass needle.

Page Number: 228

Question 1
Draw magnetic field lines around a bar magnet.

Question 2
List the properties of magnetic lines of force.
Properties of magnetic lines of force :

• The magnetic field lines originate from the north pole of a magnet and end at its south pole.
• The magnetic field lines become closer to each other near the poles of a magnet but they are widely separated at other places.
• Two magnetic field lines do not intersect one another.

Question 3
Why don’t two magnetic lines of force intersect each other ?
This is due to the fact that the resultant force on a north pole at any point can be only in one direction. But if the two magnetic field lines intersect one another, then the resultant force on north pole placed at the point of intersection will be along two directions, which is not possible.

Page Number: 229 – 230

Question 1
Consider a circular loop of wire lying on the plane of the table. Let the current pass through the loop clockwise. Apply the right hand rule to find out the direction of the magnetic field inside and outside the loop.
As shown in figure alongside, each section of wire produces its concentric set of lines of force. By applying right hand thumb rule, we find that all the sections produce magnetic field downwards at all points inside the loop while at the outside points, the field is directed upwards. Therefore, the magnetic field acts normally into the plane of the paper at the points inside the loop and normally out of the plane of paper at points outside the loop.

Question 2
The magnetic field in a given region is uniform. Draw a diagram to represent it. [CBSE 2013, 2014]
A uniform magnetic field in a region is represented by drawing parallel straight lines, ail pointing in the same direction.
For example, the uniform magnetic field which exists inside a current-carrying solenoid can be represented by parallel straight lines pointing from its S-pole to N-pole

Question 3
Choose the correct option.
The magnetic field inside a long straight solenoid-carrying current
(i) is zero
(ii) decreases as we move towards its end
(iii) increases as we move towards its end
(iv) is the same at all points
(iv) Is the same at all points.

Page Number: 231 – 232

Question 1
Which of the following property of a proton can change while it moves freely in a magnetic field. (There may be more than one correct answer.)
(i) Mass
(ii) Speed
(iii) Velocity
(iv) Momentum
The correct options are (iii) velocity, (iv) momentum.

Question 2
In Activity 13.7 how do we think the displacement of rod AB will be affected if (i) current in rod AB is increased (ii) a stronger horse-shoe magnet is used; and (iii) length of the rod AB is increased ?
(i) When the current in the rod AB is increased, force exerted on the conductor increases, so the displacement of the rod increases.
(ii) When a stronger horse-shoe magnet is used, the magnitude of the magnetic field increases. This increases the force exerted on the rod and the displacement of the rod.
(iii) When the length of the rod AB is increased, force exerted on the conductor increases, so the displacement of the rod increases.

Question 3
A positively-charged particle (alpha particle) projected towards west is deflected towards north by a magnetic field.
The direction of magnetic field is :
(i) towards south
(ii) towards east
(iii) downward
(iv) upward
(iv) Upward.
Here, the positively charged alpha particles are moving towards west, so the direction of current is towards

east. The deflection is towards north, so the force is towards north, so, we are given that
(i) direction of current is towards west
(ii) direction of force is towards north.
Let us now hold the forefinger, middle finger and thumb of our left-hand at right angles to one another. Adjust the hand in such a way that our mid finger points towards west (in the direction of current) and thumb points towards north (in the direction of force). Now, if we look at our forefinger, it will be pointing upward. Because the direction of forefinger gives the direction of magnetic field, therefore, the magnetic field is in the upward direction.

Page Number: 233

Question 1
State Fleming’s left hand rule. [CBSE 2018]
Fleming’s left hand rule : Stretch the first finger, the middle finger and the thumb of your left hand mutually perpendicular to each other in such a way that the first finger represents the direction of the magnetic field, the middle finger represents the direction of the current in the conductor, then the thumb will represent the direction of motion of the conductor.

Question 2
What is the principle of an electric motor ? [CBSE 2018]
A motor works on the principle of magnetic effect of current. When a rectangular coil is placed in a magnetic field and current is passed through it, a force acts on the coil which rotates it continuously.
When the coil rotates, the shaft attached to it also rotates. In this way the electrical energy supplied to the motor is converted into the mechanical energy of rotation.

Question 3
What is the role of the split ring in an electric motor ?
The split ring reverses the direction of current in the armature coil after every half rotation, i.e., it acts as a commutator. The reversed current reverses the direction of the forces acting on the two arms of the armature after every half rotation. This allows the armature coil to rotate continuously in the same direction

Page Number: 236

Question 1
Explain different ways to induce current in a coil.
Different ways to induce current in a coil are :

1. moving a magnet towards or away from the coil or vice-versa, and
2. changing current in the neighbouring coil.

Page Number: 237

Question 1
State the principle of an electric generator.
The electric generator works on the principle that when a straight conductor is moved in a magnetic field, then current is induced in the conductor.
In an electric generator, a rectangular coil is made to rotate rapidly in the magnetic field between the poles of a horse-shoe type magnet. When the coil rotates, it cuts the magnetic field lines due to which a current is produced in the coil.

Question 2
Name some sources of direct current.
Some of the sources of direct current are dry cells, button cells, lead accumulators.

Question 3
Which sources produce alternating current ?
Alternating current is produced by AC generators of nuclear power plants, thermal power plants, hydroelectric power stations, etc.

Question 4
Choose the correct option : A rectangular coil of copper wires is rotated in a magnetic field. The direction of the induced current changes once in each:
(i) two revolution
(ii) one revolution
(iii) half revolution
(iv) one-fourth revolution
(iii) Half revolution.

Page Number: 238

Question 1
Name two safety measures commonly used in electric circuits and appliances.
(i) Earthing and
(ii) Electric fuse.

Question 2
An electric oven of 2 kW power rating is operated in a domestic electric circuit (220 V) that has a current rating of 5 A. What result do you expect ? Explain.
The electric oven draws a current given by

Thus the electric oven draws current much more than the current rating 5 A. That is the circuit is overloaded. Due to excessive current, the fuse wire will blow and the circuit will break.
What precautions should be taken to avoid the overloading of domestic electric circuits ?
To avoid the overloading of domestic electric circuits, the following precautions should be taken :
(i) The wires used in the circuit must be coated with good insulating materials like PVC, etc.
(ii) The circuit must be divided into different sections and a safety fuse must be used in each section.
(iii) High power appliances like air-conditioner, refrigerator, a water heater, etc. should not be used simultaneously.

NCERT Solutions in TextBook

Question 1
Which of the following correctly describes the magnetic field near a long straight wire ?
(i) the field consists of straight lines perpendicular to the wire
(ii) the field consists of straight lines parallel to the wire
(iii) the field consists of radial lines originating from the wire
(iv) the field consists of concentric circles centred on the wire
(iv) The field consists of concentric circles centred on the wire

Question 2
The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is
(i) the process of charging a body
(ii) the process of generating magnetic field due to a current passing through a coil
(iii) producing induced current in a coil due to relative motion between a magnet and the coil
(iv) the process of rotating a coil of an electric motor
(iii) Producing induced current in a coil due to relative motion between a magnet and the coil

Question 3
The device used for producing electric current is called a
(i) generator
(ii) galvanometer
(iii) ammeter
(iv) motor
(i) Generator.

Question 4
The essential difference between an AC generator and a DC generator is that
(i) AC generator has an electromagnet while a DC generator has permanent magnet
(ii) DC generator will generate a higher voltage
(iii) AC generator will generate a higher voltage
(iv) AC generator has slip rings while the DC generator has a commutator
(iv) AC generator has slip rings while the DC generator has a commutator

Question 5
At the time of short circuit, the current in the circuit
(i) reduces substantially
(ii) does not change
(iii) increases heavily
(iv) varies continuously
(iii) Increases heavily.

Question 6
State whether the following statements are True or False.
(i) An electric motor converts mechanical energy into electrical energy.
(ii) An electric generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction.
(iii) The field at the centre a long circular coil carrying current will be parallel straight lines.
(iv) A wire with a green insulation is usually the live wire of an electric supply.
(i) False
(ii) True
(iii) True
(iv) False.

Question 7
List three sources of magnetic fields.
(i) Current carrying conductor
(ii) Electromagnets
(iii) Permanent magnets

Question 8
How docs a solenoid behave like a magnet ? Can you determine the north and south poles of a current-carrying solenoid with the help of a bar magnet? Explain.
A solenoid behaves like a magnet in the following ways.

• The magnetic field produced by a current carrying solenoid is very much similar to that of a bar magnet.
• Like a bar magnet, one end of the solenoid has N-polarity while the other end has S-polarity.

To determine the north and south poles, we bring N-pole of the bar magnet near one end of the solenoid. If there is an attraction, then that end of the solenoid has south polarity and the other has north polarity. If there is a repulsion, then that end of the solenoid has north polarity and the other end has south polarity because similar poles repel each other.

Question 9
When is the force experienced by a current-carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field largest ?
When the conductor carries current in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the magnetic field, the force experienced by the conductor is largest.

Question 10
Imagine that you are sitting in a chamber with your back to one wall. An electron beam, moving horizontally from back wall towards the front wall, is deflected by a strong magnetic field to your right side. What is the direction of magnetic field ?
Here the electron beam is moving from our back wall to the front wall, so the direction of current will be in the opposite direction, from front wall towards back wall or towards us. The direction of deflection (or force) is towards our right side.
We now know two things :

• direction of current is from front towards us, and
• direction of force is towards our right side.

Let us now hold the forefinger, middle finger and thumb of our left hand at right angles to one another. We now adjust the hand in such a way that our centre finger points towards us (in the direction of current) and thumb points towards right side (in the direction of force). Now, if we look at our forefinger, it will be pointing vertically downwards. Since the direction of forefinger gives the direction of magnetic field, therefore, the magnetic field is in the vertically downward direction.

Question 11
Draw a labelled diagram of an electric motor. Explain its principle and working. What is the function of a split ring in an electric motor ?
Electric Motor : The device used to convert electrical energy to mechanical energy is called Electric Motor. It is used in fans, machines, etc.
Principle : NCERT Solutions for Class 10 Science Chapter 13 Magnetic Effects of Electric CurrentElectric motor works on the principle of force experienced by a current carrying conductor in a magnetic field. The two forces in the opposite sides are equal and opposite. Since they act in different lines they bring rotational motion.

Working of an electric motor :
When current starts to flow, the coil ABCD is in horizontal position. The direction of current through armature coil has the direction from A to B in the arm AB and from C to D in the arm CD. The direction of force exerted on the coil can be found through Fleming’s left hand law.
According to this law, it is found that the force exerted on the part AB, pushes the coil downwards. While the force exerted on the part CD pushes it upwards. In this way, these two forces being equal and opposite form a couple that rotates the coil in anticlockwise direction.

Working :

1.  When the armature coil ABCD rotates in a magnetic field produced by the permanent magnets, it cuts through the magnetic lines of force.

Due to the rotation of armature coil, the associated magnetic field changes and an induced electromagnetic force is produced in it. The direction of this induced electromotive force or current can be determined by using Fleming’s right hand rule.
In first half cycle the current flows in one direction by brush B1 and in second it flows in opposite direction by brush B2. This process continues. So the current produced is alternating in nature.
Functions of Brushes : Brushes in contact with rings provide the current for external use.

Question 17
When does an electric short circuit occur ?