## Ex 4.1

#### Question 1.

Check whether the following are quadratic equations:

(i) (x+ 1)^{2}=2(x-3)

(ii) x^{2 }– 2x = (- 2) (3-x)

(iii) (x – 2) (x + 1) = (x – 1) (x + 3)

(iv) (x – 3) (2x + 1) = x (x + 5)

(v) (2x – 1) (x – 3) = (x + 5) (x – 1)

(vi) x^{2} + 3x + 1 = (x – 2)^{2}

(vii) (x + 2)^{3} = 2x(x^{2} – 1)

(viii) x^{3} -4x^{2} -x + 1 = (x-2)^{3}

Solution:

#### (i) (x+ 1)^{2}=2(x-3)

#### x^{2 }+ 2x + 1 = 2x - 6

#### x^{2 }+ 2x - 2x + 1 + 6 = 0

#### x^{2 }+ 7 = 0

#### Highest power of x is 2, so it is a quadratic equation.

#### (ii)x^{2 }– 2x = (- 2) (3-x)

#### x^{2 }– 2x = - 6 + 2x

#### x^{2 }– 2x + 6 - 2x = 0

#### x^{2 }– 4x + 6 = 0

#### Highest power of x is 2, so it is a quadratic equation.

#### (iii) (x – 2) (x + 1) = (x – 1) (x + 3)

#### x^{2 }+ x - 2x - 2 = x^{2 }+ 3x - x - 3

#### x^{2 }+ x - 2x - 2 - x^{2 }- 3x +x +3 = 0

#### - 3x+ 1 = 0

#### Highest power of x is 1, so it is not a quadratic equation.

#### (iv) (x – 3) (2x + 1) = x (x + 5)

#### 2x^{2 }+ x - 6x - 3 = x^{2 }+5x

#### 2x^{2 }+ x - 6x - 3 -x^{2 }-5x = 0

#### x^{2 } - 10x - 3 = 0

#### Highest power of x is 2, so it is a quadratic equation.

#### (v) (2x – 1) (x – 3) = (x + 5) (x – 1)

#### 2x^{2 }- x - 6x + 3 = x^{2 }+5x - x - 5

#### 2x^{2 }- x - 6x + 3 - x^{2 }-5x +x +5 = 0

#### x^{2 } - 11x +8 = 0

#### Highest power of x is 2, so it is a quadratic equation.

#### (vi) x^{2} + 3x + 1 = (x – 2)^{2}

#### x^{2} + 3x + 1 = x^{2 } - 4x +4

#### 7x - 3 = 0

#### Highest power of x is 1, so it is not a quadratic equation.

#### (vii) (x + 2)^{3} = 2x(x^{2} – 1)

#### x^{3} + 12x +8 +6x^{2 }= 2x^{3} – 2x

#### x^{3} - 6x^{2 }- 14x - 8 = 0

#### Highest power of x is 3, so it is not a quadratic equation.

#### (viii) x^{3} -4x^{2} -x + 1 = (x-2)^{3}

#### x^{3} -4x^{2} -x + 1 = x^{3} - 6x^{2 } +12x - 8

#### 2x^{2 } - 13x +9= 0

#### Highest power of x is 2, so it is a quadratic equation.

#### Question 2.

Represent the following situations in the form of quadratic equations:

(i) The area of a rectangular plot is 528 m^{2}. The length of the plot (in metres) is one more than twice its breadth. We need to find the length and breadth of the plot.

(ii) The product of two consecutive positive integers is 306. We need to find the integers.

(iii) Rohan’s mother is 26 years older than him. The product of their ages (in years) 3 years from now will be 360. We would like to find Rohan’s present age.

(iv) A train travels a distance of 480 km at a uniform speed. If the speed had been 8 km/h less, then it would have taken 3 hours more to cover the same distance. We need to find the speed of the train.

Solution:

## Ex 4.2

#### Question 1.

Find the roots of the following quadratic equations by factorisation:

(i) x^{2} -3x – 10 = 0

(ii) 2x^{2} + x – 6 = 0

(iii) √2x^{2} + 7x + 5√2 = 0

(iv) 2x^{2} – x + = 0 8

(v) 100 x^{2} – 20 X + 1 = 0

Solution:

#### Question 2.

Solve the following situations mathematically:

(i) John and Jivanti together have 45 marbles. Both of them lost 5 marbles each and the product of the number of marbles they now have is 124. We would like to find out how many marbles they had to start with.

(ii) A cottage industry produces a certain number of toys in a day. The cost of production of each toy (in rupees) was found to be 55 minus the number of toys produced in a day. On a particular day, the total cost of production was Rs.750. We would like to find out the number of toys produced on that day.

Solution:

#### Question 3.

Find two numbers whose sum is 27 and product is 182.

Solution:

#### Question 4.

Find two consecutive positive integers, the sum of whose squares is 365.

Solution:

#### Question 5.

The altitude of a right triangle is 7 cm less than its base. If the hypotenuse is 13 cm, find the other two sides.

Solution:

#### Question 6.

A cottage industry produces a certain number of pottery articles in a day. It was observed on a particular day that the cost of production of each article (in rupees) was 3 more than twice the number of articles produced on that day. If the total cost of production on that day was Rs.90, find the number of articles produced and the cost of each article.

Solution:

## Ex 4.3

#### Question 1.

Find the roots of the following quadratic equations, if they exist, by the method of completing the square:

(i) 2x^{2} – 7x + 3 = 0

(ii) 2x^{2} + x – 4 = 0

(iii) 4x^{2} + 4√3x + 3 = 0

(iv) 2x^{2} + x + 4 = 0

Solution:

#### Given:

(i) 2x^{2} – 7x + 3 = 0

#### Question 2.

Find the roots of the quadratic equations by applying the quadratic formula.

(i) 2x^{2} – 7x + 3 = 0

(ii) 2x^{2} – x + 4 = 0

(iii) 4x^{2} – 4√3x + 3 = 0

(iv) 2x^{2} – x + 4 = 0

Solution:

**(i) 2x ^{2} – 7x + 3 = 0**

On comparing the given equation with ax^{2} + bx + c = 0, we get,

a = 2, b = -7 and c = 3

⇒ x = (7±√(49 – 24))/4

⇒ x = (7±√25)/4

⇒ x = (7±5)/4

⇒ x = (7+5)/4 or x = (7-5)/4

⇒ x = 12/4 or 2/4

∴ x = 3 or 1/2

**(ii) 2x ^{2} + x – 4 = 0
**

On comparing the given equation with ax^{2} + bx + c = 0, we get,

a = 2, b = 1 and c = -4

⇒x = -1±√1+32/4

⇒x = -1±√33/4

∴ x = -1+√33/4 or x = -1-√33/4

**(iii) 4x ^{2} + 4√3x + 3 = 0**

On comparing the given equation with ax^{2} + bx + c = 0, we get

a = 4, b = 4√3 and c = 3

⇒ x = -4√3±√48-48/8

⇒ x = -4√3±0/8

∴ x = -√3/2 or x = -√3/2

**(iv) 2x ^{2} + x + 4 = 0**

On comparing the given equation with ax^{2} + bx + c = 0, we get,

a = 2, b = 1 and c = 4

⇒ x = -1±√1-32/4

⇒ x = -1±√-31/4

As we know, the square of a number can never be negative. Therefore, there is no real solution for the given equation.

**3. Find the roots of the following equations:**

**(i) x-1/x = 3, x ≠ 0
(ii) 1/x+4 – 1/x-7 = 11/30, x = -4, 7**

**Solutions:**

(i) x-1/x = 3

⇒ x^{2} – 3x -1 = 0

On comparing the given equation with ax^{2} + bx + c = 0, we get

a = 1, b = -3 and c = -1

⇒ x = 3±√9+4/2

⇒ x = 3±√13/2

∴ x = 3+√13/2 or x = 3-√13/2

**(ii) 1/x+4 – 1/x-7 = 11/30
**

⇒ x-7-x-4/(x+4)(x-7) = 11/30

⇒ -11/(x+4)(x-7) = 11/30

⇒ (x+4)(x-7) = -30

⇒ x^{2} – 3x – 28 = 30

⇒ x^{2} – 3x + 2 = 0

We can solve this equation by factorization method now,

⇒ x^{2} – 2x – x + 2 = 0

⇒ x(x – 2) – 1(x – 2) = 0

⇒ (x – 2)(x – 1) = 0

⇒ x = 1 or 2

**4. The sum of the reciprocals of Rehman’s ages, (in years) 3 years ago and 5 years from now is 1/3. Find his present age.**

**Solutions: **Let us say, present age of Rahman is *x* years.

Three years ago, Rehman’s age was (*x* – 3) years.

Five years after, his age will be (*x* + 5) years.

Given, the sum of the reciprocals of Rehman’s ages 3 years ago and after 5 years is equal to 1/3.

∴ 1/*x*-3 + 1/*x*-5 = 1/3

*(x*+5+*x*-3)/(*x*-3)(*x*+5) = 1/3

(2*x*+2)/(*x*-3)(*x*+5) = 1/3

⇒ 3(2*x* + 2) = (*x*-3)(*x*+5)

⇒ 6*x* + 6 = *x*^{2} + 2*x* – 15

⇒ *x*^{2} – 4*x* – 21 = 0

⇒ *x*^{2} – 7*x* + 3*x* – 21 = 0

⇒ *x*(*x* – 7) + 3(*x* – 7) = 0

⇒ (*x* – 7)(*x* + 3) = 0

⇒ *x* = 7, -3

As we know, age cannot be negative.

Therefore, Rahman’s present age is 7 years.

**5. In a class test, the sum of Shefali’s marks in Mathematics and English is 30. Had she got 2 marks more in Mathematics and 3 marks less in English, the product of their marks would have been 210. Find her marks in the two subjects.**

**Solutions:** Let us say, the marks of Shefali in Maths be x.

Then, the marks in English will be 30 – x.

As per the given question,

(x + 2)(30 – x – 3) = 210

(x + 2)(27 – x) = 210

⇒ -x^{2} + 25x + 54 = 210

⇒ x^{2} – 25x + 156 = 0

⇒ x^{2} – 12x – 13x + 156 = 0

⇒ x(x – 12) -13(x – 12) = 0

⇒ (x – 12)(x – 13) = 0

⇒ x = 12, 13

Therefore, if the marks in Maths are 12, then marks in English will be 30 – 12 = 18 and the marks in Maths are 13, then marks in English will be 30 – 13 = 17**.**

**6. The diagonal of a rectangular field is 60 metres more than the shorter side. If the longer side is 30 metres more than the shorter side, find the sides of the field.**

**Solutions: **Let us say, the shorter side of the rectangle be *x* m.

Then, larger side of the rectangle = (*x* + 30) m

As given, the length of the diagonal is = x + 30 m

Therefore,

⇒ *x*^{2} + (*x* + 30)^{2} = (*x* + 60)^{2}

⇒ *x*^{2} + *x*^{2} + 900 + 60*x* = *x*^{2} + 3600 + 120*x*

⇒ *x*^{2} – 60*x* – 2700 = 0

⇒ *x*^{2} – 90*x* + 30*x* – 2700 = 0

⇒ *x*(*x *– 90) + 30(*x* -90) = 0

⇒ (*x *– 90)(*x* + 30) = 0

⇒ *x *= 90, -30

However, side of the field cannot be negative. Therefore, the length of the shorter side will be 90 m.

and the length of the larger side will be (90 + 30) m = 120 m.

**7. The difference of squares of two numbers is 180. The square of the smaller number is 8 times the larger number. Find the two numbers.**

Solution: Let us say, the larger and smaller number be *x* and *y* respectively.

As per the question given,

*x*^{2 }– *y*^{2} = 180 and *y*^{2} = 8*x*

⇒ *x*^{2 }– 8*x* = 180

⇒ *x*^{2 }– 8*x* – 180 = 0

⇒ *x*^{2 }– 18*x* + 10*x* – 180 = 0

⇒ *x*(*x* – 18) +10(*x* – 18) = 0

⇒ (*x* – 18)(*x* + 10) = 0

⇒ *x* = 18, -10

However, the larger number cannot considered as negative number, as 8 times of the larger number will be negative and hence, the square of the smaller number will be negative which is not possible.

Therefore, the larger number will be 18 only.

*x* = 18

∴ *y*^{2} = 8x = 8 × 18 = 144

⇒ *y* = ±√144 = ±12

∴ Smaller number = ±12

Therefore, the numbers are 18 and 12 or 18 and -12.

**8. A train travels 360 km at a uniform speed. If the speed had been 5 km/h more, it would have taken 1 hour less for the same journey. Find the speed of the train.**

**Solution: **Let us say, the speed of the train be *x* km/hr.

Time taken to cover 360 km = 360/*x* hr.

As per the question given,

⇒ (*x* + 5)(360-1/*x*) = 360

⇒ 360 – *x* + 1800-5/*x* = 360

⇒ *x*^{2 }+ 5*x* + 10*x* – 1800 = 0

⇒ *x*(*x* + 45) -40(*x* + 45) = 0

⇒ (*x* + 45)(*x* – 40) = 0

⇒ *x* = 40, -45

As we know, the value of speed cannot be negative.

Therefore, the speed of train is 40 km/h.

**9. Two water taps together can fill a tank in 9 3/8 hours. The tap of larger diameter takes 10 hours less than the smaller one to fill the tank separately. Find the time in which each tap can separately fill the tank.**

**Solution: **Let the time taken by the smaller pipe to fill the tank = x hr.

Time taken by the larger pipe = (*x* – 10) hr

Part of tank filled by smaller pipe in 1 hour = 1/*x*

Part of tank filled by larger pipe in 1 hour = 1/(*x *– 10)

As given, the tank can be filled in 9 3/8 = 75/8 hours by both the pipes together.

Therefore,

1/*x* + 1/*x*-10 = 8/75

*x*-10+*x*/*x*(*x*-10) = 8/75

⇒ 2*x*-10/*x*(*x*-10) = 8/75

⇒ 75(2*x* – 10) = 8*x*^{2} – 80*x*

⇒ 150*x* – 750 = 8*x*^{2} – 80*x*

⇒ 8*x*^{2} – 230*x* +750 = 0

⇒ 8*x*^{2} – 200*x* – 30*x* + 750 = 0

⇒ 8*x*(*x* – 25) -30(*x* – 25) = 0

⇒ (*x* – 25)(8*x* -30) = 0

⇒ *x* = 25, 30/8

Time taken by the smaller pipe cannot be 30/8 = 3.75 hours, as the time taken by the larger pipe will become negative, which is logically not possible.

Therefore, time taken individually by the smaller pipe and the larger pipe will be 25 and 25 – 10 =15 hours respectively.

**10. An express train takes 1 hour less than a passenger train to travel 132 km between Mysore and Bangalore (without taking into consideration the time they stop at intermediate stations). If the average speeds of the express train is 11 km/h more than that of the passenger train, find the average speed of the two trains.**

**Solution: **Let us say, the average speed of passenger train = *x* km/h.

Average speed of express train = (*x* + 11) km/h

Given, time taken by the express train to cover 132 km is 1 hour less than the passenger train to cover the same distance. Therefore,

(132/x) – (132/(x+11)) = 1

132(x+11-x)/(x(x+11)) = 1

132 × 11 /(x(x+11)) = 1

⇒ 132 × 11 = *x*(*x* + 11)

⇒ *x*^{2} + 11*x* – 1452 = 0

⇒ *x*^{2} + 44*x* -33*x* -1452 = 0

⇒ *x*(*x* + 44) -33(*x* + 44) = 0

⇒ (*x* + 44)(*x* – 33) = 0

⇒ *x* = – 44, 33

As we know, Speed cannot be negative.

Therefore, the speed of the passenger train will be 33 km/h and thus, the speed of the express train will be 33 + 11 = 44 km/h.

**11. Sum of the areas of two squares is 468 m ^{2}. If the difference of their perimeters is 24 m, find the sides of the two squares.**

**Solutions: **Let the sides of the two squares be *x* m and *y* m.

Therefore, their perimeter will be 4*x* and 4*y* respectively

And area of the squares will be *x*^{2} and *y*^{2} respectively.

Given,

4*x* – 4*y* = 24

*x* – *y* = 6

*x* = *y* + 6

Also, *x*^{2 }+^{ }*y*^{2} = 468

⇒ (6 + *y*^{2}) + *y*^{2} = 468

⇒ 36 + *y*^{2} + 12*y* + *y*^{2} = 468

⇒ 2*y*^{2} + 12*y* + 432 = 0

⇒ *y*^{2} + 6y – 216 = 0

⇒ *y*^{2} + 18*y* – 12*y* – 216 = 0

⇒ *y*(*y *+18) -12(*y* + 18) = 0

⇒ (*y* + 18)(*y* – 12) = 0

⇒ *y* = -18, 12

As we know, the side of a square cannot be negative.

Hence, the sides of the squares are 12 m and (12 + 6) m = 18 m.

## Ex 4.4

**1. Find the nature of the roots of the following quadratic equations. If the real roots exist, find them;
(i) 2 x^{2} – 3x + 5 = 0
(ii) 3x^{2} – 4√3x + 4 = 0
(iii) 2x^{2} – 6x + 3 = 0**

**Solutions:**

(i) Given,

*2x*^{2} – 3*x* + 5 = 0

Comparing the equation with *ax*^{2} + *bx *+ *c* = 0, we get

*a* = 2, *b* = -3 and *c* = 5

We know, Discriminant = *b*^{2} – 4*ac*

*= *( – 3)^{2} – 4 (2) (5) = 9 – 40

= – 31

As you can see, b^{2} – 4ac < 0

Therefore, no real root is possible for the given equation, *2x*^{2} – 3*x* + 5 = 0.

(ii) 3*x*^{2} – 4√3*x* + 4 = 0

Comparing the equation with *ax*^{2} + *bx *+ *c* = 0, we get

*a* = 3, *b* = -4√3 and *c* = 4

We know, Discriminant = *b*^{2} – 4*ac*

= (-4√3)^{2 }– 4(3)(4)

= 48 – 48 = 0

As *b*^{2} – 4*ac* = 0,

Real roots exist for the given equation and they are equal to each other.

Hence the roots will be –*b*/2*a* and –*b*/2*a*.

–*b*/2*a *= -(-4√3)/2×3 = 4√3/6 = 2√3/3 = 2/√3

Therefore, the roots are 2/√3 and 2/√3.

(iii) 2*x*^{2} – 6*x* + 3 = 0

Comparing the equation with *ax*^{2} + *bx *+ *c* = 0, we get

*a* = 2, *b* = -6, *c* = 3

As we know, Discriminant = *b*^{2} – 4*ac*

= (-6)^{2} – 4 (2) (3)

= 36 – 24 = 12

As *b*^{2} – 4*ac* > 0,

Therefore, there are distinct real roots exist for this equation, 2*x*^{2} – 6*x* + 3 = 0.

=( -(-6) ± √(-6^{2}-4(2)(3)) )/ 2(2)

= (6±2√3 )/4

= (3±√3)/2

Therefore the roots for the given equation are (3+√3)/2 and (3-√3)/2

**2. Find the values of k for each of the following quadratic equations, so that they have two equal roots.
(i) 2x^{2} + kx + 3 = 0
(ii) kx (x – 2) + 6 = 0**

**Solutions:**

(i) 2*x*^{2} + *kx* + 3 = 0

Comparing the given equation with *ax*^{2} + *bx *+ *c* = 0, we get,

*a* = 2, *b* = k and *c* = 3

As we know, Discriminant = *b*^{2} – 4*ac*

= (*k*)^{2} – 4(2) (3)

= *k*^{2} – 24

For equal roots, we know,

Discriminant = 0

*k*^{2} – 24 = 0

*k*^{2} = 24

k = ±√24 = ±2√6

(ii) *kx*(*x* – 2) + 6 = 0

or *kx*^{2} – 2*kx* + 6 = 0

Comparing the given equation with *ax*^{2} + *bx *+ *c* = 0, we get

*a* = *k*, *b* = – 2*k* and *c* = 6

We know, Discriminant = *b*^{2} – 4*ac*

= ( – 2*k*)^{2} – 4 (*k*) (6)

= 4*k ^{2}* – 24

*k*

For equal roots, we know,

*b*2 – 4*ac* = 0

4*k*^{2} – 24*k* = 0

4*k* (*k* – 6) = 0

Either 4*k* = 0 or *k* = 6 = 0

*k* = 0 or *k* = 6

However, if *k* = 0, then the equation will not have the terms ‘*x*^{2}‘ and ‘*x*‘.

Therefore, if this equation has two equal roots, *k* should be 6 only.

**3. Is it possible to design a rectangular mango grove whose length is twice its breadth, and the area is 800 m ^{2}? If so, find its length and breadth.**

**Solutions:** Let the breadth of mango grove be *l*.

Length of mango grove will be 2*l*.

Area of mango grove = (2*l*) (*l*)= 2*l*^{2}

2*l*^{2 }= 800

*l*^{2 }= 800/2 = 400

*l*^{2 }– 400 =0

Comparing the given equation with *ax*^{2} + *bx *+ *c* = 0, we get

*a* = 1, *b* = 0, *c* = 400

As we know, Discriminant = *b*^{2} – 4*ac*

=> (0)^{2} – 4 × (1) × ( – 400) = 1600

Here, *b*^{2} – 4*ac* > 0

Thus, the equation will have real roots. And hence, the desired rectangular mango grove can be designed.

*l *= ±20

As we know, the value of length cannot be negative.

Therefore, breadth of mango grove = 20 m

Length of mango grove = 2 × 20 = 40 m

**4. Is the following situation possible? If so, determine their present ages. The sum of the ages of two friends is 20 years. Four years ago, the product of their ages in years was 48.**

**Solution: **Let’s say, the age of one friend be x years.

Then, the age of the other friend will be (20 – x) years.

Four years ago,

Age of First friend = (*x* – 4) years

Age of Second friend = (20 – *x* – 4) = (16 –* x*) years

As per the given question, we can write,

(*x* – 4) (16 – *x*) = 48

16*x – x*^{2} – 64 + 4*x* = 48

* – x*^{2} + 20*x – *112 = 0

*x*^{2} – 20*x + *112 = 0

Comparing the equation with *ax*^{2} + *bx *+ *c* = 0, we get

*a* = *1*, *b* = -2*0* and *c* = 112

Discriminant = *b*^{2} – 4*ac*

*=> (-*20*)*^{2} – 4 × 112

=> 400 – 448 = -48

*b*^{2} – 4*ac *< 0

Therefore, there will be no real solution possible for the equations. Hence, condition doesn’t exist.

**5. Is it possible to design a rectangular park of perimeter 80 and area 400 m2? If so find its length and breadth.**

**Solution: **Let the length and breadth of the park be *l *and b.

Perimeter of the rectangular park = 2 (*l + b*) = 80

*So, l + b *= 40

Or, *b* = 40 – *l*

Area of the rectangular park = *l×b = l(40 – l) = *40*l *– *l*^{2 }= 400

*l*^{2}* *–^{ }40*l* + 400* *= 0, which is a quadratic equation.

Comparing the equation with *ax*^{2} + *bx *+ *c* = 0, we get

*a* = 1, *b* = -40, *c* = 400

Since, Discriminant = *b*^{2} – 4*ac*

*=>(-*40*)*^{2} – 4 × 400

=> 1600 – 1600 = 0

Thus,* b*^{2} – 4*ac *= 0

Therefore, this equation has equal real roots. Hence, the situation is possible.

Root of the equation,

*l* = –*b*/2*a*

*l* = (40)/2(1) = 40/2 = 20

Therefore, length of rectangular park, *l *= 20 m

And breadth of the park, *b *= 40 – *l *= 40 – 20 = 20 m.