# NCERT Solutions Science ch-1 Matter in Our Surroundings

Question 1. Convert the following temperatures to the Celsius scale.
(a) 293 K (b) 470 K.
Answer: (a) 293 K into °C
293 – 273 = 20°C
(b) 470 K into °C 470 – 273 = 197°C

Question 2. Convert the following temperatures to the Kelvin scale.
(a) 25°C (b) 373°C.
25 + 273 = 298 K
(b) 373°C into K 4 373 + 273 = 646 K

Question 3. Give reason for the following observations.
(a) Naphthalene balls disappear with time without leaving any solid.
(b) We can get the smell of perfume sitting several metres away.
Answer: (a) Naphthalene balls disappear with time without leaving any solid, because naphthalene balls sublime and directly changes into vapour state without leaving any solid.
(b) We can get the smell of perfume sitting several metres away because perfume contain volatile solvent and diffuse faster and can reach people sitting several metres away.

Question 4. Arrange the following substances in increasing order of forces of attraction between the particles—water, sugar, oxygen.
Answer: Oxygen —> water —> sugar.

Question 5. What is the physical state of water at—
(a) 25°C (b) 0°C (c) 100°C
Answer: (a) 25°C is liquid (b) 0°C is solid or liquid
(c) 100°C is liquid and gas

Question 6. Give two reasons to justify
(a) water at room temperature is a liquid.
(b) an iron almirah is a solid at room temperature.
Answer: (a) Water at room temperature is a liquid because its freezing point is 0°C and boiling point is 100°C.
(b) An iron almirah is a solid at room temperature because melting point of iron is higher than room temperature.

Question 7. Why is ice at 273 K more effective in cooling than water at the same temperature?
Answer: Ice at 273 K will absorb heat energy or latent heat from the medium to overcome the fusion to become water. Hence the cooling effect of ice is more than the water at same temperature because water does not absorb this extra heat from the medium.

Question 8. What produces more severe bums, boiling water or steam?
Answer: Steam at 100°C will produce more severe bums as extra heat is hidden in it called latent heat whereas the boiling water does not have this hidden heat.

### Question from ncert book

Question 1. Which of the following are matter?
Chair, air, love, smell, hate, almonds, thought, cold, cold-drink, smell of perfume.
Answer: Chair, air, almonds, and cold-drink.

Question 2. (a) Tabulate the differences in the characteristics of states of matter.
(b) Comment upon the following: rigidity, compressibility, fluidity, filling a gas container, shape, kinetic energy and density.
Answer: (a) Difference in the characteristics of 3 states of matter.

 Characteristics Solid Liquid Gas Shape Fixed shape No Fixed shape No Fixed shape Volume Fixed volume Fixed volume No Fixed volume Intermolecular force Maximum Less than solids Very less Intermolecular space Very less More than solids maximum Rigidity/Fluidity Rigid/cannot flow Can flow/not rigid Can flow/not rigid Compressibility negligible compressible Highly compressible

(b) Comment on:
(i) Rigidity: The tendency of a substance to retain/maintain their shape when subjected to outside force.
(ii) Compressibility: The matter has intermolecular space. The external force applied on the matter can bring these particles closer. This property is called compressibility. Gases and liquids are compressible.
(iii) Fluidity: The tendency of particles to flow is called fluidity. Liquids and gases flow.
(iv) Filling of a gas container: Gases have particles which vibrate randomly in all the directions. The gas can fill the container.
(v) Shape: Solids have maximum intermolecular force and definite shape.
Whereas liquids and gases takes the shape of container.
(vi) Kinetic energy: The energy possessed by particles due to their motion is called kinetic energy. Molecules of gases vibrate randomly as they have maximum kinetic energy.
(vii) Density: It is defined as mass per unit volume, the solids have highest density.

Question 3. Convert the following temperature to Celsius scale:

a. 300K          b. 573K

Solution:

a.  0°C=273K

300K= (300-273)°C = 27°C

b. 573K= (573-273)°C = 300°C

Question 4. What is the physical state of water at:
(a) 250°C (b) 100°C
Answer: (a) 250°C = gas (b) 100°C liquid as well as gas

Question 5. Why does a desert cooler cool better on a hot dry day?
Answer: The outer walls of the cooler get sprinkled by water constantly. This water evaporates due to hot dry weather. Evaporation causes cooling of inside air of cooler. This cool air is sent in the room by the fan.

Question 6. How does the water kept in an earthen pot (matka) become cool during summer?
Answer: The earthen pot is porous with lot of pores on it, the water oozes out through these pores and the water gets evaporated at the surface of the pot thereby causing cooling effect. This makes the pot cold and the water inside the pot cools by this process.

Question 7. Why does our palm feel cold when we put some acetone or petrol or perfume on it?
Answer: Acetone, petrol or perfume evaporate when they come into contact with air. The evaporation causes cooling sensation in our hands.

Question 8. Why are we able to sip hot tea or milk faster from a saucer rather than a cup?
Answer: Tea in a saucer has larger surface area than in a cup. The rate of evaporation is faster with increased surface area. The cooling of tea in saucer takes place sooner than in a cup. Hence we are able to sip hot tea or milk faster from a saucer rather than a cup.

Question 9. What type of clothes should we wear in summer?
Answe: We should wear light coloured cotton clothes in summer. Light colour because it reflects heat. Cotton clothes because it has pores in it, which absorbs sweat and allows the sweat to evaporate faster thereby giving cooling effect.